Author Archives: Shakespeare's Globe Class- Madison's Blog

Blog Post 7- Webtext Draft 2

My name is Madison Herin and I am a first-year student at Emory University. This blog is part of my English 210 Shakespeare’s Globe class, which is aimed at analyzing some of Shakespeare’s texts, including The Tempest, Taking of the Shrew, The History of King Lear, Richard II, and Titus Andronicus. This blog acts as an online portal to share content I have created about these plays as well as become a database for my scholarly work for this course. This course integrates my website as a tool to help me work through difficult concepts and problems found in Shakespeare’s texts. Some of the problems the class uncovered in Shakespeare are: the complex textual history (including opposing viewpoints and evidence) of many of the plays, the difficult synthesis between stage productions and the text, the multifaceted combination of nature and civilization, among other things (note to self: include other options). Some of these problems uncovered were hard to deal with in the context of Shakespeare’s words fighting with meaning. Some of the content we used to help the class reflect and integrate new concepts with Shakespeare’s texts include Berensmeyer’s Media Ecology interpretation, Haraway’s Encounters with Companion Species, Alaimo’s Trans-corporeality at Sea, and Cohen’s Principles of Elements. These essays allowed us to look at Shakespeare’s text with new meaning otherwise previously unseen. (Give examples of how we used them)

 

Writing webtexts in different formats allows me to further my writing skills because it makes me think about how writing itself changes based on the platform or format used; it can either be longer (paper), shorter (blog), content-driven (digital edition) or presentation-driven (infographic/powerpoint). I now know how to shape my written information based on how it will be presented to my audience. For example, if I was speaking to a well-informed researcher, I might use a information dense platform such as a paper or digital edition page to get across important content that the reader could fully understand. On the other hand, if I knew my content was to be read by a someone new to Shakespeare or with little prior experience with analysis of Shakspeare, then I would utilize a different format to put out information, such as a blog or infographic. Writing in multiple formats has given me skills such as tailoring analysis to a specific format (which I had never previously done), as well as connecting large concepts, such as language use in Shakespeare and eco-criticism, where I previously would have thought the concepts were not able to be connected. Many of the posts I have made connect conceptually when I am able to see them on the same platform, where otherwise they may not have been able to be seen. (add in portion about how writing in different modes allows for addressing certain Shakespeare problems, explain why).

 

As the internet becomes a larger resource for different types of content, knowing how to create and use a website (including how to customize it to my needs) is a helpful tool in future endeavors, such as further academic progress/research and any business-based information I want other people to have. Because I am thinking about going into the STEM field (medicine or medical research), many of the problems I have addressed in this course may seem irrelevant to this future. In reality, many of the problems I have faced dealing with Shakespeare, including analysis of text and integration of different theses to prove a point are in fact very relevant. For example, while I would not be analyzing a text of Shakspeare in a field regarding medicine, I could be analyzing a medical text, research paper, or even a spoken comment. By being able to pick out hard details and facts and synthesis an argument around those facts, I will be able to make a proper argument or rebuttal with certainty. No matter the topic, analysis skills are helpful in dealing with critical research and even day-to-day matter (think about arguing with another doctor about the best medical treatment to use). As well, many times analysis or decisions cannot be made solely on a singular idea. Sometimes, one must branch out to other conepts or theses (sometimes ones that don’t necessarily seem to be directly related to the topic), learn to analyze them, and incorporate them into a different argument. If you stick within the boundaries or concepts you know, no new or innovative ideas will occur. By incorporating outside opinions, no matter which field- Shakespeare or medical research- there can be a greater synthesis of ideas and greater innovation. This course has taught me when and how to utilize outside theses to argue new ideas. (answer about how Shakespeare helps solve contemporary problems and imagine new futures)

 

Things I want to change about my blog:

  • The theme- I either have to spend more time customizing features I want or change themes with more customization options, because as of right now my blog seems very sparse and unappealing
  • The tag cloud- This is probably theme related, but the tag cloud is very cumbersome and (also) unattractive; it detracts from the main content in the middle of the page
  • The blog page- It seems a bit overwhelming, as it is just a continuous, long scroll of blog posts. There is no break-up of the content and it could be better laid out
  • Change the featured header of my blog- I originally picked the sea as my header picture because it related to the eco-criticism concept we touched upon in the class, but I find it less relevant to my website than if I use a picture relating directly to Shakespeare
  • Add extra pictures to my blogs (and possibly the front page with a sliding header); especially non-historical pictures. As of right now I have lots of paintings and historical pictures depicting Shakespeare scenes, but it might be more relatable to the audience if I include modern images that relate to my concepts I have written about

Questions I have:

  • If I have more than one issue with my blog right now, is it better to switch themes or continue to tinker with my current one?
  • How can I change my blog page in order to break up content/organize it better?

Blog Post 6- Titus Andronicus

William Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus utilizes stark and gruesome descriptions of horror and mayhem, while at the same time employing flowery language and beautiful portrayals of non-human entities, in order to juxtapose normal human agency with something beyond the ordinary. Cohen’s “Eleven Principles of the Elements” argues that readers can look to non-human assemblage to work through difficult texts and subjects; this is exactly what Titus Andronicus does. The text incorporates non-human agency in multiple different instances, including Act II, Scenes II-IV (most notably), Act IV, Scene I, and Act V, Scene III.

In Act II, Titus and the rest of the Romans go hunting with the newly incorporated Goths, including Tamora and her two sons. In this act, a conglomerate of non-human pieces come together to create an assemblage which takes on agency and changes the course of the play. For example, scene II begins this assemblage with the loud ruckus horns and hounds barking, ready to begin the hunt. “And wake the emperor and his lovely bride/And rouse the prince and ring a hunter’s peal/That all the court may echo with the noise” (I.II.—). Here, the noise takes on an agency of its own and does more than just wake everybody in the camp up; it ignites the intense emotions that have been simmering under the surface (seen in previous scenes, including Act I, Scene I, where Chiron and Demetrius argue due to lust). Titus’ line “That all the court may echo with the noise” can be read two ways; although he may mean to just say that the noise is so loud that the whole entire camp can hear it, he inadvertently also states that he hopes the court “echos” the noise the non-human assemblage has created. What seem to be innocuous sounds actually take on their own meaning and power, starting the downwards spiral of murder and mayhem.

This assemblage continues in Scene III, where Tamora asks Aaron to sit with her under the trees and ignore the hunt in order to spend time with each other. She states “The snake lies rolled in the cheerful sun/The green leaves quiver with the cooling wind/And make a chequer’d shadow on the ground/Under their sweet shade, Aaron, let us sit” (II.III.—). Here, the forest has taken on a cheerful, positive aura, trying to stop or overthrow the negativity coming from the camp. It is so nice and joyful that even Tamora, who has been bathed in pain and suffering, asks to discontinue her anger in order to enjoy the upbeat assemblage the forest creates. Indeed, according to Cohen, the forest here might even use its assemblage and action to create “ethics of care”; it recognizes the swelling evil coming from the camp’s assembly, and tries to compensate to stop the mayhem from occurring. This positivity might have worked, if Lavinia and Bassanius had not met with Tamora and Aaron. Once the arguing begins, there is no turning back. The forest then rapidly transforms to a place of hope and brightness into darkness; the hole that Chiron and Demetrius make swallows up both the living and the dead. In Scene IV, the assemblage of the forest incorporates Lavinia’s used body into the forest; she becomes inhuman when “stern ungentle hands/Have lopp’d and hew’d and made thy body bare/Of her two branches, those sweet ornaments” (II.IV). Because the elements are already inside of Lavinia (“storied matter”, Cohen), and she has now been changed into a symbolic tree, her pain is incorporated into the forest in order to alleviate her suffering alone, and because the elements are already inside of her (“storied matter”, Cohen).

Other examples of non-human assemblage are in Act IV, Scene I, where the book and the garden’s ground help tell Lavinia’s stories with her and take agency to create changes in the play’s future, and in Act V, Scene III, where Lavinia’s, Chiron’s and Demetrius’ dead bodies become an assembly with agency that propels the play to it’s end. No matter the specific example of what the assemblage is, whether it is the forest, the garden, or the dead, Titus is rife with non-human assemblage. The agency these assemblages take on help move the play in specific directions, and allow readers to recognize that although non-human objects seem inanimate or just a commodity, they are indeed living and an active part in the world (Cohen’s Resourcism).

Blog Post 5- Webtext Draft

Introductory Paragraph Draft:

In my introductory paragraph, the most important topic I want to bring up is how this course has helped me gain skills for future use; this includes making and navigating a website, writing text in different formats, and connecting previously-unconnected ideas in my writing.

Comments I want to include in this include:

  • “As the internet becomes a larger resource for different types of content, knowing how to create and use a website (including how to customize it to my needs) is a helpful tool in future endeavors, such as further academic progress/research and any business-based information I want other people to have.
  • Writing webtexts in different formats allows me to further my writing skills because it makes me think about how writing itself changes based on the platform or format used; it can either be longer (paper), shorter (blog), content-driven (digital edition) or presentation-driven (infographic/powerpoint). I now know how to shape my written information based on how it will be presented to my audience.
  • As well, I am now able to connect concepts, such as language use in Shakespeare and eco-criticism, where I previously would have thought the concepts were not able to be connected. Many of the posts I have made connect conceptually when I am able to see them on the same platform, where otherwise they may not have been able to be.

 

Things I want to change about my blog:

  • The theme- I either have to spend more time customizing features I want or change themes with more customization options, because as of right now my blog seems very sparse and unappealing.
  • The tag cloud- This is probably theme related, but the tag cloud is very cumbersome and (also) unattractive; it detracts from the main content in the middle of the page.
  • The blog page- It seems a bit overwhelming, as it is just a continuous, long scroll of blog posts. There is no break-up of the content and it could be better laid out
  • Change the featured header of my blog- I originally picked the sea as my header picture because it related to the eco-criticism concept we touched upon in the class, but I find it less relevant to my website than if I use a picture relating directly to Shakespeare.
  • Add extra pictures to my blogs (and possibly the front page with a sliding header); especially non-historical pictures. As of right now I have lots of paintings and historical pictures depicting Shakespeare scenes, but it might be more relatable to the audience if I include modern images that relate to my concepts I have written about.

Blog Post 4- King Lear

Introduction:

            King Lear, when all of its layers are stripped away, is, at its core, a play about human interactions and all of its complexities. One interpretation of these interactions is the sexual baseness the characters experience and incorporate into their lives, starting from the very beginning of the play, such as when Lear asks his daughters to express their love for him: “Tell me, my daughters/which of you shall we say doth love us most” (1.44-45). The mix between human sexuality and other crude behavior juxtaposes the dynamic political and social developments that occupy the human civilization the characters create. Both men, such as Edmund, and women, such as Regan, experience sexual desires, and openly express these desires in different manners, whether it is through thinly veiled comments or obvious behaviors, such as when Gonril states “this kiss, if it durst speak/would stretch thy spirits up into the air” (16.22-23), and kisses Edmund. This sexuality also takes a darker turn, with King Lear discussing topics such as rape, incest, and abuse that haunt the characters. The main characters carry their own secret, inappropriate cravings that influence their behaviors and actions during interactions with others; these desires describe the human condition of having hidden secrets and needs.

It can be argued that King Lear stands as a representation of a larger spanse of human thoughts and actions dealing with sexual needs and their influence on both personal and cultural beliefs and behaviors. Whether this sexuality is within the traditional norms or outside the scope of customary requests, all the characters in King Lear deal with how their own- and others’- sexuality impacts them within personal and larger, group relationships. This relates to the audiences’ own experiences, as everyone must incorporate sexuality within the confines of their own worlds, and can help hold their attention. King Lear can also help guide audience members in thinking of their own relationship with sexuality and sexual baseness, as well as how it guides everyday associations with others, such as the comment “Thou [Lear] hast one daughter/who redeems nature from the general gurse/which twain hath brought her to” (20.194- 196). The text also makes readers analyze the delicate balance that one must hold between the intensity that sexual needs and the ability to make rational decisions based on other content.

Blog Post 3- King Lear

OverpopulationThe first thing that usually comes to mind when reading Shakspeare’ s King Lear is not the topic of the environment; instead most people gravitate towards analyzing the social dynamics between characters like Lear, Cordelia, and Goneril. By overlooking the environmental factors that arise in King Lear, readers miss out on important commentary of Shakespeare’s world in which he lived, as well as the opportunity to connect his issues to present day environmental concerns, such as pollution and climate change. While it may seem that the gap between Lear’s history and today’s present might be difficult to connect, the bridge between the time periods is bridged far easier than thought, as ideas and opinions about nature that were held during Shakespeare’s era are still seen today.

Take, for example, the issue of overpopulation in today’s society. Does King Lear have anything in particular to say about overpopulation? No, not at all. But there are pieces of text that explain the problems humans have when dealing with nature that can fully apply to, and describe, the issue of overpopulation in present times.
Overpopulation, according to different sources, “is among the most pressing environmental issues” (everythingconnects.org) facing our generation and the world today. Although many believe other issues, such as global warming and animal extinction, to be more important than overpopulation, these problems may not be as demanding as the issue of human overpopulation. This isn’t to say that global warming and other environmental issues aren’t important, but these claims tend to forget that overpopulation is actually the cause of many other environmental troubles. A straightforward explanation is that an increase in population creates a strain for new technology (in order to increase quality of life, space to live, needed resources, etc.). This new technology creates ways for the new population to thrive, but many times disregards the environment in favor of helping humanity. Examples of this disregard could include tearing down forests to create new housing and agriculture, or utilizing finite resources in high quantities. Therefore, much of the problems surrounding the environmental disaster occurring now can be traced back to overpopulation, making it one of the most important and necessary issues to manage.

Many of the lines in Shakespeare’s Lear can help to understand the issue of overpopulation by creating a bridge between human thoughts and actions. For example, in scene nine, Lear speaks directly to nature as he stands outside in the midst of a storm.

Rumble thy bellyful; spit, fire; spout, rain.
Nor rain, wind, thunder, fire are my daughters.
I task you not, you elements, with unkindness.
I never gave you kingdom, called you children.
You owe me no subscription. Why then, let fall
Your horrible pleasure. Here I stand your slave,
A poor, infirm, weak and despised old man,
But yet I call you servile ministers (9.14-9.21)

This quote serves as a clear message as to what Lear thinks of nature. Here, he asks nature to put an end to the ravaging storm, telling it [nature] that he has not treated it like children or subjects in his kingdom. With this logic, Lear believes he has not asked nature for anything, and thus has been fair; he wants to have nature respect him for his “kindness”. He feels like a slave to the elements’ unkindness and wants to change this. In the end, he still calls the elements his servants, because that is what he hopes will reoccur.

The passage can tell readers many things about how Lear-and through his character, people of Shakespeare’s time- must have viewed nature. Lear believes he is fair to nature for not subjugating it or asking it for anything. These beliefs are skewed for two reasons; one, because readers know that in fact, Lear does ask nature to acquiesce to his will- he builds on land and splits it for his daughters, he tills the land and grows food for his own use- and two, because the idea that not subjugating nature equates to being kind to nature is not valid. Just because he believes he does not ‘tie nature down’ or use it for his own needs does not mean he actively gives back to nature, nurturing it in the way that is needed. Instead, he still wants to dominate nature, seen in his comment about being a slave and wanting the reverse. Lear is scared to be controlled by something out of his control and, as much as he says he is kind to nature, wants to take that control back. He even calls nature a servant in the end, because that is what he hopes he can achieve.

This text from King Lear can help readers think through the confusion and teetering imbalance that is humans dealing with nature. Many cultures (namely Europeans) historically viewed nature as something to be controlled, and this value is still seen today, even though, in many cases, nature overtakes humans (Pattberg). Although the view of human control is changing due to the acknowledgement of human causation on environmental problems, the past views that created the problems in the first place cannot be erased. Some still believe nature should bend to human whim constantly, and this view carries its effects to the present day. Humans never want to feel out of control, so they shape nature to their needs, seen in the idea of overpopulation and molding nature to allow for more people than there should be. If humans didn’t create technology to overcome the forces of nature, overpopulation to this extreme would not have been able to occur. Natural resources couldn’t be over-extracted, and many other human-caused environmental disasters may not have happened. The manipulation of nature as servants has created problems beyond repair.
Right now, it seems humans are in the place similar to where Lear is in this section of the text; people are servants to the whims of nature as it lashes back from the damage civilization has caused. Humanity must sit while animals die, the ocean acidifies, and the climate gets warmer. But this quote also hints at the possibility of a positive future through the inter-connection of humans and nature; we can become ‘owners’ of nature by calming it to a state of ‘servile ministers’ through working with the elements to create solutions to present environmental problems, including human overpopulation. Without this, humans will be out of control and the storm will continue to rage.

Works Cited
“Effects of Human Population.” Everything Connects- Why Nature Matters. George Tsiattalos, 20 Nov. 2013. Web. 15 Oct. 2015.
Philipp, Pattberg. “Conquest, Domination and Control: Europe’s Mastery of Nature in Historic Perspective.” Journal of Political Ecology 14 (n.d.): n. pag. Journal of Politcal Ecology. The University of Arizona, 2007. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
Shakespeare, William, and Barbara Hodgdon. The Taming of the Shrew. 3rd ed. London: Arden Shakespeare, 2010. Print.
Shakespeare, William, and Stanley Wells. The History of King Lear. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.

Infographic- Taming of the Shrew

  • Within the play of The Taming of the Shrew, the word ‘curst’ is usually used as an adjective to mock and make fun of another person. In most cases within The Shrew, the word curst refers to Katherine Minola and her uncharacteristically unfeminine personality. The men, including Horensio and Gremio, who are looking for a woman with more socially acceptable behaviors, call Katherine a “curst” woman because they do not how outspoken and “ill-tempered” she is. The word curst was first seen in text around approximately 1300 AD. It seems that the word was derived from the word accursed (also spelled accurst), which was used even earlier around 1225AD. Accurst means “That has been cursed; lying under a curse; doomed to perdition or misery” as well as “Worthy of being cursed; damnable, detestable, hateful.” By the time Shakespeare used the word in his texts, curst and accurst had two very different usages. Around the time of the penmanship of The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare utilizes the definition “Of persons (or their dispositions, tongues, etc.): Malignant; perversely disagreeable or cross; cantankerous, shrewish, virulent. Obs. or arch. (also dial.)” as an adjective to describe both people and situations which are less than agreeable.
  • This connotation also seems to stem from the word cur, a name for “a dog: now always depreciative or contemptuous; a worthless, low-bred, or snappish dog”, but also used “as a term of contempt: a surly, ill-bred, low, or cowardly fellow”. Shakespeare even uses this definition in Midsummer Night’s Dream. This analogy between a “scoundrel” or “ill-bred” person and an animal acts as a comparison between bad behaviors and bestial or uncivilized living.
  • In Richard II, the usage of ‘curst’ has a similar connotation to how it is used in Taming of the Shrew. He uses curst as a way to describe a negative situation or person, while utilizing accurst to describe an actual “cursed” person, event, or object. The word ‘cursed’ is found approximately 30 times in plays such as Taming of the Shrew, Henry VI, King Lear, Midsummer Nights Dream, and Much Ado about Nothing, among others. The word ‘accurst’ is seen generally much less in the plays Hamlet, Measure for Measure, Two Gentleman of Verona, as well as Venus and Adonis.
  • This difference in connotation between the two words shows a difference in plot and context of each of Shakespeare’s plays. The word ‘curst’ shows up more often in plays with humor and wit, since it is used as a derogatory term. The word ‘accurst’ is used as an actual explanation for negative situations, and thus is found in more serious, problematic plays.
  • As I traversed Shakespeare’s works to find examples of the usage of ‘curst’, I noticed that the term was utilized in a defamatory way for women in more than just The Shrew. I also found examples of this same word choice in Love’s Labour’s Lost, where Boyet says “Do not curst wives hold that self-sovereignty…” and Much Ado about Nothing, when Antonio states “In faith, she’s too curst”. Midsummer Night’s Dream, Twelfth Night, and Two Gentleman of Verona all also have similar indications of using ‘curst’ to describe women, pointing to the argument that during Shakespeare’s time, it may have been regularly utilized to describe negative traits within women that did not subscribe to traditional societal values. By comparing women to animals, Shakespeare makes the claim that women must be tamed and civilized to live with man; they are ‘beneath’ man. This ideology lines up with thinking from Shakespeare’s time- similarly to animals, women are owned and act as companion-servants to men, instead of being independent humans with a personal will.
  • Because Petruccio and other characters adopt the use of ‘curst’ as an epithet for Katherine, elevating the word above a basic description. This points to the idea that Katherine’s identity is dominated strictly by her behavior (or in this case, her lack of proper, expected behavior). She is degraded to a level of baseness that does not include her desires and personality, and is only valued based on how useful she is to the men in her life.

Works Cited:

“Accursed.” N.d. Oxford English Dictionary Online [Oxford UP]. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

“Cursed.” N.d. Oxford English Dictionary Online [Oxford UP]. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

“Cur”. N.d. Oxford English Dictionary Online [Oxford UP]. Web. 8 Oct. 2015

Shakespeare, William, and Barbara Hodgdon. The Taming of the Shrew. 3rd ed. London:    Arden Shakespeare, 2010. Print.

Blog Post 2- Taming of the Shrew

The word ‘curst’ within Shakespeare’s canon

  • Within the play of The Taming of the Shrew, the word ‘curst’ is usually used as an adjective to mock and make fun of another person. In most cases within The Shrew, the word curst refers to Katherine Minola and her uncharacteristically unfeminine personality. The men, including Horensio and Gremio, who are looking for a woman with more socially acceptable behaviors, call Katherine a “curst” woman because they do not how outspoken and “ill-tempered” she is.
  • The word curst was first seen in text around approximately 1300 AD. It seems that the word was derived from the word accursed (also spelled accurst), which was used even earlier around 1225 AD. Accurst means “That has been cursed; lying under a curse; doomed to perdition or misery” as well as “Worthy of being cursed; damnable, detestable, hateful.” By the time Shakespeare used the word in his texts, curst and accurst had two very different usages. Around the time of the penmanship of The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare utilizes the definition “Of persons (or their dispositions, tongues, etc.): Malignant; perversely disagreeable or cross; cantankerous, shrewish, virulent. Obs. or arch. (also dial.)” as an adjective to describe both people and situations which are less than agreeable.
  • Within most of Shakespeare’s plays, with the exception of Richard II, the usage of ‘curst’ has a similar connotation to how it is used in Taming of the Shrew. He uses curst as a way to describe a negative situation or person, while utilizing accurst to describe an actual “cursed” person, event, or object. The word ‘curst’ is found approximately 30 times in plays such as Taming of the Shrew, Henry VI, King Lear, Midsummer Nights Dream, and Much Ado about Nothing, among others. The word ‘accurst’ is seen generally much less in the plays Hamlet, Measure for Measure, Two Gentleman of Verona, as well as Venus and Adonis.
  • This difference in connotation between the two words shows a difference in plot and context of each of Shakespeare’s plays. The word ‘curst’ shows up more often in plays with humor and wit, since it is used as a derogatory term. The word ‘accurst’ is used as an actual explanation for negative situations, and thus is found in more serious, problematic plays.
  • As I traversed Shakespeare’s works to find examples of the usage of ‘curst’, I noticed that the term was utilized in a defamatory way for women in more than just The Shrew. I also found examples of this same word choice in Love’s Labour’s Lost, where Boyet says “Do not curst wives hold that self-sovereignty…” and Much Ado about Nothing, when Antonio states “In faith, she’s too curst”.  Midsummer Night’s Dream, Twelfth Night, and Two Gentleman of Verona all also have similar indications of using ‘curst’ to describe women, pointing to the argument that during Shakespeare’s time, it may have been regularly utilized to describe negative traits within women that did not subscribe to traditional societal values.

Works Cited:

“Accursed.” N.d. Oxford English Dictionary Online [Oxford UP]. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

“Cursed.” N.d. Oxford English Dictionary Online [Oxford UP]. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

“Open Source Shakespeare: Search Shakespeare’s Works, Read the Texts.” Open Source Shakespeare: Search Shakespeare’s Works, Read the Texts. George Mason University, 2003. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

The Tempest- Short Paper

The TempestThis paper argues that Prospero is indeed using machines, not magic, to enact revenge against Alonso and Antonio in Shakespeare’s The Tempest. The paper makes this claim by stating that by using a media ecology viewpoint while reading The Tempest, a reader must employ the archaic definition of “machine”, which includes social constructs, to properly analyze the text. Prospero employs these machines, or the social constructs of love, greed, and slavery, to manipulate the situation on the island in order to avenge his dukedom.

The Tempest Short Paper